There are, multiple types of memory: official, unofficial, public, private, collective, communal, local, national, societal, historical, emotional, postmemory, literal and exemplary. Memories are often thought of in terms of scale: from the individual or private which often involves personal experiences such as loss or suffering (Burk 2003: 317); the local or communal, which draws on key events or experiences that have occurred within close-knit groups; to societal memory which describes narratives of the past that are sympathetic to a broader, loosely interconnected population. Also on that same scale is public and national memory. Bodnar (1992: 13) argues that public memory emerges from the ‘intersection of official and vernacular cultural expressions’ while Shackel (2003: 11) believes that it is a reflection of present political and social relationships’. Public memory is, as Till (1999: 254) argues, ‘a fluid process’ which is not only negotiated by official or national groups but also by the media, academics, heritage institutions and local community organisations.

Another Scotland, image selection  

POW....Gosford, Site East Lothian, image selection  

POW....Haddington, Site East Lothian, image selection  

POW....N048921088, Fife, image selection  

Space and place as we know are never neutral – they are socially constructed and will always embody political power, values and symbols, and, moreover, these will be contested between different voices and interpreters.

(S. McDowell, M. Braniff, 2014)